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  Common Species Used for Timber and Panel Productions
RANGE: 2 to 3 species and Jelutong paya (I). lowii) and Jelutong bukit (U. costulata) generally known.
Imported to Japan from Sabah and Sarawak, and large amount from Sarawak. Sap from scarred stems used for chewing-gum.

PROPERTIES: Wood similar to Pulai, but usually cylindric. having smaller latex traces than Pulai. Pith about 1 cm noticeable in the cross section.

Outer bark grey or grey brown becoming dark when old, and surface fissured. Inner hark yellow white corky and reaching around 3 cut thick. Fresh wood oozing while milky sap when scarred.

Heartwood not distinct, and wood white or pale yellow white. Wood surface partially pink when fresh and partially dark when old.

A.D. 0.38 ~ 0.50.
grain: Straight.

Moderately coarse.

USES: Same as Pulai. Laminated wood, drawers, plywood, shoe heels and ceiling.
RANGE: About 27 species in South Fast Asia. Durian (D. zibethinus) planted for its fruit. Neesia and Coelostegia of the same family very similar to Durian and possibly treated as Durian. Imported to Japan from Sabah and Sarawak mixed with Meranti and Keruing. Annually large amount imported but small per ship.

Substitute for Sepetir of Leguninosae. Package, plywood and furniture.

PROPERTIES: Difference between dark red sapwood and pale heartwood on the log edge, but sapwood paler when sawn. Red brown vessel stripes clearly visible on wood surface when fresh.

Outer bark dark brown or red brown with shallow wrinkles. Inner bark with thick reddish fibre bundles.

On sawn face heartwood red brown or grey brown and sapwood white when fresh changing to grey brown with lapse of time,

weight: A.D.0.48' 0.75.

grain: Straight or interlocked.

texture: Coarse,

RANGE: 13 species from Bangladesh to New Guinea and the Louisiade Is. One of the genera of Dipterocarpaceae distributes in the farthest eastern area. large amount imported to Japan front Papua New Guinea, and also from Sabah and Sarawak, well known and widely used in Japan.

PROPERTIES: White resin often oozing out from sapwood.

bark: Generally thick and 2 ' 4 cm. Outer bark with axial irregular fissures. Inner bark pale yellow white or pale brown and fibrous.

wood: Heartwood not distinct. Wood pale yellow or pale yellow brown. Heartwood with pinkish stripes, which becoming brown when old and accordingly indistinct.

weight: A.D. 0.53 0.84.

warn: Usually interlocked.

texture: Coarse.

USES: Door-sills. steps, flooring, plywood, interior fittings and furniture
RANGE: About 75 species from India and Ceylon to Indo-China, the Philippine,, Sumatra, Borneo and Bali. In Japan one of the best known and the most widely used logs among tropical Asian logs together with Seraya and Meranti, and large amount imported mainly from Sabah and Sarawak. Sawn lumber imported in large amount.

USES: Flooring, railroad coaches, package, dunnage. pallets, construction base, panels and plywood.

PROPERTIES: Resin oozing out in the cross section and some times covers whole section.

bark: Some reaching 3 % 4 cm thick and some 0.5 cm. Outer bark grey or pale brown, and some smooth and some shallowly fissured. Inner bark yellow brown changing to brown or dark brown with lapse of time.

Sapwood pale yellow white or somewhat red brown becoming grey after a Ion g period of time, Heartwood red brown with grey or red brown changing to darker.

A.D. 0.56 ~, 0.88.
grain: Interlocked.


RANGE: 7 species in Malaya, Sumatra and Borneo. D. aromatica and D. oblongifolia growing in Malaya, Sumatra and Romeo. Others in Borneo only. Large amount imported together with sawn lumber and one of the best known among tropical Asian logs In Japan.

PROPERTIES: Resin usually oozing out concentrically.

Outer bark grey brown or dark brown with shallow fissures. Inner bark red brown and fibrous.

wood: Sapwood pale yellow brown with somewhat pink, sometimes yellow partially. Heartwood pale red brown or dark red brown, Wood color similar to Keruing, but Kapur clearer. Generally odorous and strong when fresh.

weight: A.D.0.56~ 0,84.

grain: Usually straight and sometimes shallowly interlocked.

texture: coarse.

USES: General construction, flooring, plywood, doorsill,
railroad coaches, pallets and dunnage.
RANGE: Of this genus. only 2 species belong to Lauans in the Philippines. P. contorta is popular. Growing in Luzon, Mindro, Masbate, Cebu, Samar, Leyte, Negros, Mindanao, Basilan, etc. They are White lauans in a narrow sense.

PROPERTIES: Some exceeding 1.11 m in diameter. Buttress of old trees prominent.

bark: 1 ~ 2 cm thick. Outer bark brown or black, with clear axial fissures. Inner bark brown or pate pink.

Heartwood not distinct, sapwood pate grey and heartwood grey when fresh, and heartwood becoming pink with lapse of time.

A.D. 0.44 ~0.59.


texture: Coarse.

USES: Furniture, cabinets, plywood, interior fittings and ships. Used widely as well as other Lauans.
RANGE: This species belonging to Rubroshorea group, Red lauan in a narrow sense. Growing in Luzon, Leyte, Samar, Negros, north Mindanao, etc.

USES: Typical red colored Lauan and used for construction, furniture, plywood, cabinets and many general purposes, substitute for Mahogany.

PROPERTIES: Sometimes diameter reaches 2 in with remarkable buttress.

bark: 1 ~ 2 cm thick, and dark brown or black with red. With shallow fissures and falls oil in rectangular pieces. Inner bark brown or red and fibrous.

wood: Sapwood yellow while gradually changing to dark red or brick red of heartwood.

weight: A.D. 0.42 ' 0.60.

: Coarse.


RANGE: 70 species in Rubroshorea group of this genus in Thailand, Sumatra, Borneo and the Philippines. One of woods imported to Japan in the largest amount among Seraya and Meranti, which is generally called Red mcranti. Usually Light red meranti and Dark red mcranti traded together, and also White meranti included and exact imported amount of this species not known.

USES: Plywood, general construction, furniture, fittings and used many other purposes.

PROPERTIES: Brittle heart (punky) noticeable in the cross action.

Outer bark variable by species. Inner bark red, pink, pink brown or orange brown and fibrous.

wood: from light pink to dark red brown. Sonic heartwood distinct and some not from sapwood.

A.D. 0.68 ~ 0.80 (Dark red meranti), 0.48.~ 0.74 (Red meranti).



RANGE: About 10 species in Burma, Thailand. IndoChina, Malaya, Indonesia and the Philippines. P. malaanonan commercially best known. The name of White seraya used in Sabah as general name of logs in this genus. Much of Seraya and Meranti imported to Japan including Ibis wood, which amount is the largest and used most widely among tropical Asian logs. Logs of this genus traded together with Seraya and Meranti of Shores, generic name, and rarely assorted to this genus only.

PROPERTIES: Brittle heart (punky) noticeable in the cross section, sometimes with dark stripes.

bark: Usually thick and 2 ~ 3 cm. Outer bark grey brown with deep fissured cork. Inner bark grey white or grey brown and fibrous.

wood: heartwood not distinct. Dark colored con, centric stripes 5 ~ 10 cm apart noticeable, which is particular to thus species.

weight: A.D. 0.37 ~ 0.63 (P. malaanonan).

grain: Interlocked.

texture: Coarse,

USES: Plywood, general construction and furniture. Substitute for pale Meranti.
RANGE: 39 species in Richetioides group of this genus in Thailand, Malaya, Sumatra. Borneo and the Philippines.Large amount imported to Japan from all over South East Asia. Logs of this group from moderately light and soft to heavy and hard, and from pale yellow to greenish yellow.Called Kuning or Meranti kuning, which means yellow in Indonesian.

PROPERTIES: Log surface yellow with greenish tinge usually white resin oozing out. And resin often oozing out only on sapwood of cross section.

bark: Similar to balks of other Meranti species in appearance, and yellow with green.

wood: Usually heartwood not distinct. Wood yellow with green and sapwood pale. Some dark and sonic pale.

A.D. 0.40 ~ 0.82.

grain: Interlocked.

Moderately coarse.

USES: Plywood, general construction and furniture. Not so much used for surface materials as compared with Other Meranti species.
RANGE: 25 species in Anthoshorea group of this genus from India and Burma to the Philippines, Borneo and Moluccas. Manggasinoro (S. philippinensis, S. polita) in the Philippines belongs to this group.
The name of Melapi used generally for this group in Sabah, but logs from other than Sabah also called Nclapi in Japan. White meranti different from White seraya and White lauan, which quite often treated as While meranti in Japanese market, and care needed not to mix.

USES: Plywood, general construction, furniture, fitzings,
and used particularly for its pale color.

PROPERTIES: Cross section of log yellow white and wood surface usually reddish. Fresh face yellow white changing to brown in 30 minutes.

bark: Similar to Other Meranti species, and usually inner bark left on surface partially.

wood: Heartwood not dntmct. Wood pale yellow white.

weight: A.D. 0.54 ~ 0.91.

grain: Interlocked.

Moderately coarse.

RANGE: 45 species in Shorea group of this genus from Ceylon and India to Malaya, Borneo, the Philippines and Moluccas. Sal (S. robusta) in India, Guijo (S. guise) in Philippine and Bangkirai (Shorca spp. including S. laevis) in Borneo best known in this group.Large amount imported to Japan from Sabah and Sarawak mixed with Meranti. Logs quite similar to Meranti and careful classification needed.

Doorsills, basement, helves, pallets, package and fittings.

PROPERTIES: With smaller brittle heart (punky) than Meranti. Wood very hard,
which distinguishes Seraya.

bark: Similar to Seraya. Usually fibrous inner bark left on logs when imported.

wood: Yellow, yellow brown or red brown, and some greenish on surface.
Heartwood somewhat distinct, and sapwood paler.

weight: A.D. 0.84 ~ 1.05.

grain: Interlocked.

Moderately line or fine.

RANGE: Malaya, Indonesia, the Philippines and Sabah. Belonging to Shores subgenus of this genus. Sometimes imported to Japan as Selangan batu merah but usually mixed considerably among Selangan batu.

PROPERTIES: Wood heavier and harder than Red seraya, and Moderately lighter and softer than Selangan batu.
USES: House basement, pallets, flooring, exterior boards and door-sills.

bark: Similar to Seraya group.

wood: Heartwood not distinct. Heartwood red brown or dark red brown and moderately darker than Red Seraya. Sapwood pale, greyish.

weight: A.D. 0.64' ~ 0.88

grain: Interlocked.

texture: Moderately fine.

USES: Plywood, general construction and furniture. Not so much used for surface materials as compared with Other Meranti species.
RANGE: About 100 species from South East Asia to the South Pacific regions, and also in Madagascar and South America. This log imported to Japan from South East Asia, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Is. One of the well-known logs in Japan.

USES: furniture, beds, sofas and plywood.

PROPERTIES: Log surface with big or small waves, and brittle heart (punky) noticeable in the cross section.

thick, sometimes up to 4 cm. Outer bark grey or grey brown with deep lengthwise fissures. Some presenting yellow partially. Inner bark brown or red brown and fibrous, and sometimes white or yellow white sap oozing out,

wood: heartwood somewhat distinct. Heartwood red or dark red, and sapwood somewhat pale becoming greyish when seasoned.

AD, 0.54 ~ 0.81.

Usually interlocked.


RANGE: 12 species in South Fast Asia.

PROPERTIES: Wood without bark very similar to Meranti in appearance, and brittle heart (punky) noticeable in the cross section. Logs in this genus known
as light and soft wood. Some heavier lops sometimes divided into Geronggang batu.

Outer bark pale brown or yellow brown with fissures, and inner bark pale red brown,

Heartwood not distinct. Ileartwod pale pink or pale red brown. Sapwood somewhat pale becoming grey with lapse of nine, and with golden lustre.

A.D. 0.43 ~, 0.61.



USES: Furniture, drawers and boxes.
RANGE: About 40 species in tropical America, tropical Africa. Madagascar and South East Asia. Small amount imported to Japan from Sabah and Sarawak.

Handles, decoration and heavy construction.

With remarkable ripple marks.

bark: I ~. 1.5 cm thick, and considerately hard and smooth.
Outer hark grey or Ivy brown and inner bark red brown or dark brown.

wood: Heartwood distinct in the cross section. Heartwood from red brown to dark brown, and sapwood pale yellow while becoming grey or brown when old.

weight: A.D. 0.76 ~ 1.06.

grain: Interlocked.

texture: Moderately fine or moderately coarse.

RANGE: Thailand, Java, Indo-China, Burma, Borneo, Sumatra and the Philippines. Merkus pine called Cambodian pine, Sumatra pine and Mindoro pine by their origins. Sometimes planted. In Indonesia this species planted for long. Now natural grown logs of large diameter imported to Japan front Laos.

PROPERTIES: Naturally grown tree, very similar to Iced pine in Japan.

bark: Grey or brown, and thick with deep fissures,

wood: Heartwood yellow or yellow red. Sapwood pale colored. When trees old heartwood dark colored.

weight: A.D. 0.39 ~. 0.42.

grain: Straight.

texture: Coarse.

USES: Construction, and decoration (old trees)
RANGE: These genera growing mainly in the Southern Hemisphere, and Podocarpaceae from the temperate zone such as the Himalayas and Japan to the tropics, This wood is one of rare woods of coniferous trees as well as Apthis among tropical Asian logs. Not much imported, and used to mix in Agathis, Very similar to Agathis and difficult to distinguish.

USES: Woodworking, furniture, drawers, door-sllls, carving
and plywood.

PROPERTIES: Very similar to Agathis, but bark fibrous and whole wood tinged with yellow. Resin not oozing out like Agathis.

bark: 1 ~ 2 cm thick, and red brown with grey.
Outer hark smooth and without fissures not like Agathis. Inner bark fibrous.

wood: lleartwood not distinct. Wood yellow white or yellow with pale peen. sometimes with pale brown. Growth rings sometimes noticeable and sometimes not.

weight: Light/soft or moderately heavy/hard. A.D. 0.42 ~ 0.63.

grain: Straight.

texture: Fine.

RANGE: About 115 species from South Fast Asia to the South Pacific regions, Large amount imported to Japan from wide areas of South Fast Asia and New Guinea. Well known in Japan and used widely.
Nyatoh or Nato including Ganua, Lucuma, Madhuca and Payena, generic name, of the same family.
Depending on origins and species, therefore Nyatoh having wide variations properties such as color tinge, weight and hardness. Accordingly uses and prices different.

PROPERTIES: Logs with fissures, and sometimes white sap oozing out.

bark: 1 ~ 3 cm thick. Outer bark usually brown. red brown or dark brown with black, and sometimes greyish with deep fissures. Inner
bark brown or red brown and fibrous, and partially left on wood surface.

wood: Heartwood not distinct. Wood pale brown. pink, red, red brown or dark red brown, and sapwood moderately pale.

weight: Front moderately light/soft to heavy/hard. A.D.0,40 ~ 0.88.

grain: Straight or moderately interlocked.

texture: Coarse or moderately line.

USES: Each piece considerably differs in color, durability and properties, and uses accordingly different.
The best wood used for musical instruments (violin, guitar, etc.), show-cases and high class furniture. Others used widely for door-sills, picture frames, interior fittings and cabinets,
RANGE: By some this species included in Heritiera, and 35 species of the genus, in Africa, South East
Asia, the South Pacific regions and Australia. Mengkulang named for the logs from Tarrietia. Large amount imported to Japan from Sabah and Sarawak. Well known and widely used in Japan. Small amount from New Guinea.

Boxes, furniture, plywood, building and doors. Substitute for Meranti.

PROPERTIES: Ripple marks noticeable on flatsawn face and
sometimes traumatic resin canal in the cross section.

bark: 1 ~ 2 cm thick. Outer bark red brown with grey, sometimes with black,
and falls off in pieces. Inner bark red brown or dark red brown and fibrous.

wood: Heartwood distinct. Heartwood red brown or dark brown and lustrous,
Sapwood pale. and vessel red and other parts with golden lustre when fresh.

Somewhat heavy/hard or moderate. A.D. 0.60 ~ 0.80.

Interlocked or straight.


RANGE: Two species except T. grandis known, but T. grandis by far superior to the other in value and fame. Teak growing in monsoon forest in Burma, India and Thailand. Also planted in the tropics of the. world for its high value, but rarely produced for market. Natural logs from Thailand and Burma, and planted logs from Java, which are well known in international market as planted wood.

PROPERTIES: Ring porous and annual ring visible. When wood surface rubbed, presenting greasy feeling and particular greasy smell.
bark: Scarcely left when imported to Japan.

Heartwood distinct. Sapwood yellow white and heartwood golden brown or dark brown sometimes with dark stripes but variable by origin.

weight: Heavy/hard. A.D. 0.57 ~ 0.69.

grain: Straight.

texture: Coarse.

USES: Furniture, cabinets, fittings, laminated wood and one of the most valuable woods,
RANGE: 25 species in Mexico, Cuba and in the tropics in South America. Courbaril best known in this genus and bound from southern Mexico to Central America, northern Brazil, Bolivia and Peru.

USES: Ships, general construction, furniture, cabinets, flooring. turnery, handles,
athletic Instruments, panels and plywood.

PROPERTIES: Generally 30 in in height and 0.6 ~ 1.2 in in diameter.

bark: Around 1 cut thick. Cuter bark grey brown with small fissures and small thin
pieces stripped off. Inner bark hard fibrous and brown.

wood: Heartwood distinct. Heartwood brown or dark brown with golden lustre.
Sapwood pale pink brown and red vessel lines visible.

weight: heavy/hard. (A.D. 0.83 ~ 0.91.)

grain: Straight or interlocked.

texture: Moderately coarse or coarse.

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